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[doc id="6428" args="right"]Le régime totalitaire ... n’est-il qu’un rapiéçage, qui emprunte ses méthodes d’intimidation, ses moyens de d’organisation et ses instruments de violence à l’arsenal politique bien connu de la tyrannie, du despotisme et des dictatures ? Ne doit-il son existence qu’à la faillite déplorable, mais peut-être accidentelle, des forces politiques traditionnelles -libérales ou conservatrices, nationales ou socialistes, républicaines ou monarchistes, autoritaires ou démocratiques ? Ou bien y a-t-il au contraire quelque chose comme une nature du régime totalitaire ? S’il en est ainsi, alors les formes entièrement nouvelles, sans précédent, de l’organisation et du mode d’action totalitaire, doivent reposer sur l’une de ces rares expériences fondamentales que les hommes peuvent faire, chaque fois qu’ils vivent ensemble et qu’ils sont impliqués dans les affaires publiques. [...]Pourtant avec le régime totalitaire nous sommes en présence d’un genre de régime totalement différent. Il brave, c’est vrai, toutes les lois positives jusqu’à celles qu’il a lui-même promulguées, ou celle qu’il ne s’est pas soucié d’abolir. Mais il n’opère jamais sans avoir la loi pour guide et il n’est pas non plus arbitraire : car il prétend obéir rigoureusement et sans équivoque à ces lois de la Nature et de l’Histoire dont toutes les lois positives ont toujours été censées sortir. [...]La légitimité totalitaire, dans son défi à la légalité et dans sa prétention à instaurer le règne direct de la justice sur la terre, accomplit la loi de l’Histoire ou de la Nature sans la traduire en normes de bien et de mal pour la conduite individuelle. Elle applique la loi directement au genre humain sans s’inquiéter de la conduite des hommes.Hanna Arendt, Le système totalitaire, Paris, Seuil, 1972, p.204-206____________________________________________________________ L’historiographie communiste en débat : la question totalitaireLes programmes de première (1995), de troisième (1998), impliquent l’usage du concept de totalitarisme pour questionner les régimes italien (fascisme), allemand (nazisme) et soviétique (stalinisme). Il s’agit là d’une relecture du siècle à l’aune de la démocratie libérale : l’unicité du totalitarisme ne se dessinant qu’en creux, comme antithèse du libéralisme [footnote]TRAVERSO, Enzo. Le Totalitarisme. Jalons pour l'histoire d'un débat. Le Totalitarisme. Le XXème siècle en débat. Paris. Point Seuil. 2001. p 13.[/footnote]. Cet usage prescriptif du concept dans les programmes scolaires coïncide avec le débat, ouvert dans l’espace public par la polémique née de l’introduction de Stéphane Courtois au Livre noir du communisme, autour de la comparaison nazisme / stalinisme. La controverse porte en grande partie sur ce qu’implique cette comparaison. En effet, son usage [footnote]Deux ouvrages collectifs questionnent cette comparaison : FERRO, Marc, Ed. Nazisme et communisme, deux régimes dans le siècle. Paris. Hachette (collection Pluriel). 2000. Et ROUSSO, Henry, Ed. Stalinisme et nazisme. Histoire et mémoire comparées. Bruxelles. Complexe. 1999.[/footnote] suppose :-l’extension au stalinisme de la catégorie juridique du crime contre l’humanité.-Celle-ci prenant comme corollaire l’éventuelle relativisation du passé nazi [footnote]BOURETZ, Pierre. Penser au XXème siècle : la place de l’énigme totalitaire. Esprit. n° 218. Janvier / Février 1996.[/footnote].De facto, cet usage méconnaît en partie l’historiographie classique de cette question du totalitarisme, Hannah Arendt et Raymond Aron notamment. Ce dernier soulignait d’ailleurs (Démocratie et totalitarisme) que dans le premier cas, l’aboutissement du système totalitaire était le camp de travail, dans l’autre cas la chambre à gaz. Dans le champ historiographique du communisme, cet usage du concept dans l’horizon de la démocratie libérale, est celui de François Furet dans le Passé d’une illusion. Sa correspondance avec Ernst Nolte qui, selon lui, brisa le tabou de l’antifascisme historiographique, reconnaît au régime soviétique et aux régimes nazis et fascistes, une essence commune [footnote]FURET, François / NOLTE, Ernst. Fascisme et communisme. Paris. Plon. 1998. Furet ne partage pas l'ensemble des analyses d'Ernst Nolte, notamment celle portant sur le caractère réactif fascisme / communisme. Il préfère voir dans le fascisme et le communisme deux figures potentielles de la démocratie libérale. Notamment p 63 : le point qui lie en profondeur communisme et fascisme c'est le déficit constitutif de la démocratie moderne.[/footnote]. La césure du programme de première (Le pacte Molotov / Ribbentrop) valide cette intuition, pourtant discutée historiographiquement.Evoquer l’ensemble des polémiques françaises sur cette question outrepasse le cadre de cette intervention. Celle-ci se fixe un objectif plus modeste, n’envisageant le concept qu’au regard de la pratique comparative qu’elle implique dans le cadre des programmes scolaires. Prenant la question du totalitarisme comme outil, dans le contexte de bilan du XXème siècle qu’autorise la césure de 1989, il s’agira après un bref rappel des moments clés de son usage, d’en restituer l’historicité. Au titre des programmes de lycée, cette dernière éclaire deux moments : la crise des démocraties dans les années Trente, la manière dont la constitution d’un nouvel ordre (désordre ?) international relit les relations internationales depuis 1945.Vincent Chambarlhac (Université de Bourgogne. 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Concept de totalitarisme et enseignement

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